Glossary: Demography Profile

This web page was produced as part of the Demography Profile 2009 and as such contains information correct at the time of publication (Autumn 2009). Some of the terms included may have been refined for the Observatory glossary.



ABM University LHB
Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Local Health Board
Black and minority ethnic
European age standardised rates
General fertility rate
Local authority
Local health board
Lower super output area
Middle super output area
National Public Health Service for Wales
Office for National Statistics
Wales Centre for Health


Age standardised mortality rate
See European age standardised rates. 
Black and Minority Ethnic Population 
People in a given geographical area who are non-white.
Confidence intervals
Where applicable and possible to do so, 95 per cent confidence intervals have been calculated. Confidence intervals are indications of the natural variation that would be expected around a rate and they should be considered when assessing or interpreting a rate.
The size of the confidence interval is dependent on the number of events occurring and the size of the population from which the events came. Generally speaking, rates based on small numbers of events and small populations are likely to have wider confidence intervals. Conversely, rates based on large populations are likely to have narrower confidence intervals.  
Confidence limits
The upper and lower boundaries of the confidence interval.
A Census is a survey of all people and households. The data gathered includes birth date, sex and occupation, but also education level and health-related data. In England and Wales it is undertaken every 10 years and the next Census will be conducted in 2011. 
Circulatory diseases
Circulatory diseases include all diseases caused by hardening of the inner lining of the arteries with fatty deposits. These diseases are often referred to as cardiovascular diseases and include coronary heart disease. 
Deprivation measures
Indicators which estimate the level of deprivation in a given area (see also Welsh Index of Multiple deprivation).
European age standardised rates [EASR]
Age standardisation allows comparison of rates across different populations while taking account of the different age structures of those populations. Failure to take account of differing age-structures can be very misleading when comparing rates of illness in different populations.
The European age standardised rate represents the overall rate you would get if the population had the same age-structure as a theoretical standard European population. In order to calculate this we apply the rates which occur in each age band to the new (standard) population structure. The measure only allows for comparison between rates which have been standardised; it is not a proportion or risk of an event occurring and does not, of itself, involve a comparison with rates across Europe.
Fifths of deprivation
Geographical areas are ranked from highest to lowest by deprivation score and then split into five equal bands, ranging from least deprived to most deprived fifth.
General fertility rate [GFR]
Live births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years.
Local health board [LHB]
Local Health Boards are NHS local bodies in Wales responsible for planning, designing, developing and securing the delivery of primary, community, in-hospital care services and specialised services in their respective areas. There will be seven LHBs in Wales, changed from 22 LHBs previously.
Life expectancy
The average number of years a person could expect to live if he/she experienced the age-specific mortality rates of the given area and time period for the rest of their life.
Lower Super Output Area [LSOA]    
Defined geographical area based on Census output areas with an average of 1500 persons per LSOA. There are 1896 LSOAs in Wales, and the number of LSOAs can vary widely between LHBs.
Mid-year estimates
Annual ONS estimates of the resident population, based on the Census and taking into account population change (births, deaths and migration).
Middle Super Output Area [MSOA]
Defined geographical area based on Census output areas with an average of 7500 persons per MSOA. There are 413 MSOAs in Wales, and the number of MSOAs can vary between LHBs.
Older people living alone
The proportion of residents within the given geographical area aged 75 and over that live on their own. This indicator is derived from the 2001 Census data. 
Population density
Persons per square km.
Respiratory diseases
Respiratory disease is the term for diseases of the respiratory system, including lung, pleural cavity, bronchial tubes, trachea, upper respiratory tract and the nerves and muscles of breathing. Conditions include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and reversible airway obstruction (asthma).
Population projections
Population projections are based on assumptions about births, deaths and migration. The assumptions are based on past trends and only indicate what may happen should the recent trends continue.
Registered population
The number of people registered with a General Practitioner within the given geographical area.  An area’s registered population can therefore include people resident in a different area. 
Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation
WIMD 2008 is a measure of multiple deprivation at small area level. A WIMD deprivation score is calculated using 8 domains i.e. income employment, health, education, access to service, housing, physical environment, community safety. For further information see:

Last updated: 12 March 2014